Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate: Being the Sedgwick Essay Prize for the Year 1892

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Seward, A. C. (Albert Charles) (1863-1941)

He reported that two of seven children born to a father who was successfully treated for childhood retinoblastoma, a malignant tumor of the eye, also developed the disease , Victor Alexander Haden Horsley GB , using dogs, performed the first successful experimental hypophysectomy. Two dogs survived five and six months respectively after this operation Victor Alexander Haden Horsley GB successfully operated on several cases of pituitary tumors in man , The first of these operations was performed in Hermann Schloffer AT reported the first successful resection of a pituitary tumor via a transphenoidal approach.

Local anesthesia was provided by cocaine Anton von Eiselsberg AT and Lothar von Frankl-Hochwart AT successfully drained a cystic tumor of the pituitary gland by way of a superior transnasal approach. The patient died 2 days later of purulent meningitis , Julius von Hochenegg AT and I. Head AT , in , used the same superior transnasal approach to successfully treat a case of acromegaly William MacCormac GB introduced an operation for the treatment of intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder Jan Mikulicz-Radecki; Johannes von Mikulicz-Radecki PL-AT was the first to make a plastic reconstruction of the esophagus after the resection of its cervical portion for carcinoma Gustav Adolf Neuber DE was one of the first to reject the use of antiseptic substances, particularly in wounds and dressings, and advocate a strict regime of anti-contamination instead.

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His system can be interpreted as a variety of the clean surgery concepts that existed in Britain along with Listerism. In retrospect Neuber himself pointed to that parallel. Because of this they are often counted among the inventors of aseptic surgery , , , , , Michelson, in , was the first American to receive a Nobel Prize in the sciences physics. Subsequently, he formulated the osmotic pressure equation, and the theory of solutions that connected osmotic pressure, freezing-point depression, and the lowering of vapor pressure as thermodynamic properties Knoefel US , and Arthur E.

Guedel US introduced divinyl oxide as an anesthetic Ernst Salkowski DE discovered phytosterol phytosterin , the nucleus of vegetable fats Phytosterols act as a structural component in the cell membrane of plants, analogous to the cholesterol in the cell of animals. William Dobinson Halliburton GB gave the first credible experimental descriptions of actin's properties Barry A.

Palevitz US , John F.


Ash US , and Peter K. Hepler US found actin present in Nitella an alga and suggested that myosin molecules attached to chloroplasts, which walk by forming crossbridging cycles generate active streaming in Nitella , Sergei Nikolaevich Winogradsky RU discovered chemoautotrophic bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfur and others which oxidize sulfur to sulfuric acid while using carbon dioxide as a carbon source.

These studies of sulfur bacteria eventually led to the concept of the sulfur cycle , Viktor Hensen DE introduced the term plankton to mean all particles and material which floats in a water column, regardless of whether it occurs in the upper or lower layers of the water column, or whether it is alive or dead. It is derived from the Greek planktos , to wander or drift. Hensen credits his colleague Professor Foerster with suggesting this term The injected material is an antigen; the counter material produced is an antibody. If the antigen is a bacterium or a bacterial toxin, then an antibody will exist that will prevent future infections.

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If serum containing this antibody is then injected into a human being, it may lend him immunity to a particular disease Richet tried to produce such an immune serum for tuberculosis but failed Later, Emil Adolf Behring working along similar lines, succeeded with tetanus and diphtheria.

Note : Richet was the first to injection serum into a human in Maurice Kaufmann FR used European viper Vipera berus venom and guinea pigs while Henry Sewall US used rattlesnake venom and pigeons to independently discover that anti-venoms are produced in the blood of animals inoculated with small doses of venom, and that the degree of immunity can be built up by slowly increasing the dosage of venom in successive inoculations , Enrique Paschen DE rediscovered these elementary bodies They were later named Paschen bodies in his honor.

These elementary bodies or Paschen bodies are now recognized as collections of the virus. Theodor Boveri DE , while studying Ascaris megalocephala , was the first to recognize naturally occurring polyploidy Fridtjof Nansen NO was the first to point out that the posterior root nerve fibers divide on entering the spinal cord into ascending and descending branches Wilhelm Roux DE demonstrated that shortly after fertilization of an amphibian egg a broad crescent develops in the lower hemisphere—opposite the point of sperm entry—loses some of its dark pigment and becomes the gray crescent. The gray crescent persists at most for a few cleavages.

He found that the dorsal lip of the blastopore appears where the gray crescent had been, and he deduced that the plane of the first cleavage median plane bisects the blastopore dividing the embryo into a right and left half. The three axes of the future embryo are thus fixed before segregation of the egg begins , Luigi Salvatore Savastano IT determined the bacterial cause of galling on olives Olea europaea to be Pseudomonas savastanoi This disease, called olive knot , was discovered in France.

See , John R. Paul, Howard Atwood Kelly US , in , performed a hysterorrhaphy suturing of a lacerated uterus Henry Seebohm GB was the first ornithologist to recognize the importance of isolation in species formation This is an acute disease that affects cattle.


The bacterium was named in honor of Auguste Chauveau FR. Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch DE observed a small bacillus, later identified as Haemophilus aegyptius , while examining a series of eye inflammations in Egypt It is now recognized as the cause of a highly contagious form of conjunctivitis known as pinkeye.

This organism is sometimes referred to as the Koch-Weeks bacillus. Davis US were the first to identify this organism as Haemophilus aegypticus Anton Weichselbaum AT isolated the causative agent of septic meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis , and associated it with six cases of acute cerebrospinal meningitis Johann Otto Leonhard Heubner DE was the first to isolate meningococci from the cerebrospinal fluid of living beings Guido Banti IT pointed out that typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium Edward Hartley Angle US developed the Angle system of regulation and retention of the teeth, and treatment of fractures of the maxillae.

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This rapidly became the most popular orthodontic method in the world This condition prevents outward movement of the eye toward the ear , and in some cases may also limit inward eye movement toward the nose. Paul Gerson Unna DE described seborrheic dermatitis and distinguished it from chronic eczema and psoriasis Oscar Minkowski; Oskar Minkowsky DE associated acromegaly with a hyperfunctional pituitary gland Julius Wagner-Jauregg AT , to treat the mentally ill, induced fevers using at turns tuberculin, typhus vaccine, and tertian malaria.

In , nine patients with general paresis neurosyphilis were treated by injecting blood from patients experiencing active malaria ; three recovered, three showed temporary relief, and three showed no improvement George Washington Crile US was the first to perform major operations with intraneural injections of cocaine. His first such operation was in , Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick DE , in , constructed and fitted what was to be considered the first successful model of a contact lens: an afocal sclaral contact shell made from heavy brown glass, which he tested first on rabbits, then on himself, and lastly on a small group of volunteers Jan Mikulicz-Radecki; Johannes von Mikulicz-Radecki PL-AT introduced the folded gauze pad for packing off the viscera in abdominal operations and used as sponge in general This was done to eliminate pyloric stenosis.

A short longitudinal incision is made through all layers of the pylorus and closed transversely. Used after truncal vagotomy. Henry L. Coit US began as early as to work to ensure a safe milk supply for infants, by educating the public, lawmakers, and the medical community. Abraham Jacobi US collaborated with the philanthropist Nathan Straus US to establish pasteurization plants and milk stations for poor infants in New York beginning in In , Chicago became the first city in the world to require pasteurization of milk James Jackson Putnam US and Charles Loomis Dana US independently described a neurological disease with great variability of symptoms, characterized by degenerative changes in the white matter of the spinal cord associated with pernicious anemia.

Onset was usually insidious with weakness, fatigue, and dyspnea on exertion.

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Other symptoms may include paralysis of the legs and arms, with tremor present when there is increase in muscle tone static tremor , and in movement kinetic or intentional ; myalgia, edema of the feet and ankles, numbness and tingling in the distal portions of the extremities, glossitis, headache, malaise, and peculiar gait Putnam-Dana syndrome , Note : malabsorption of vitamin B12, vitamin E and copper are etiological factors. John Langdon Down GB coined the term idiot savant to apply to children who, while feeble-minded, exhibit special faculties, which are capable of being cultivated to a very great extent Venerate the critical spirit….

Without it all else is nothing. It always has the last word. Remarks made at the dedication of the Pasteur Institute of Paris 14 November The Pasteur Institute was erected in Paris and dedicated on November It was paid for by public donations from all over the world This they called steric hindrance , , Erwin Frink Smith US postulated some sort of a virus as the cause of peach yellows Auguste Fernbach FR tested for the presence of bacteria in samples taken from the interiors of various plant tissues.

Bacteria were found in only 6. Fernbach considered that these growths were the result of accidental contaminations Sergei Nikolaevich Winogradsky RU described photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria, including Chromatium These granules stain deeply with aniline dyes and are now known as Babes-Ernst granules or bodies 52 , , Babesia microti is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes scapularis ticks—typically, by the nymph stage of the tick, which is about the size of a poppy seed. Hunfeld DE , A. Hildebrandt DE , and J. Gray IE report that in cattle, a major host, the disease is known as Texas cattle fever , redwater, or piroplasmosis.

Human babesiosis is uncommon but reported cases have risen recently because of expanded medical awareness In , Trillat patented the solution as Formolin. Theodor Geuther DE discovered that formalin Formolin destroys the germinating power of smut spores Wilhelm Roux DE experimentally produced a half-embryo by killing one blastomere of the two-celled frog embryo Challenger During the Years ; still considered a benchmark publication.

In this monograph all tetractinellids known at that time are treated, including the many dredged by H. Many of the genera and families erected by Sollas are still recognized as valid Samuel Wendell Williston US , in , wrote the 1st edition of a very important and influential book on the North American diptera In his account of foraging or army ants Eciton predator , he mentioned that birds follow these ants and snap up any insects that take flight to escape the ants.

Belt also discovered that leaf-cutting ants, Oecodoma, use the leaf parts to grow fungi, which they ate, in underground rooms Kudrevezki RU discovered secretory fibers in the vagus, which diminish or abolish secretion by the pancreas. Pavlov showed that atropine paralyzes these secretory fibers , Charles Scott Sherrington GB described the synapse and motor cortex In addition, they showed that surgical extirpation of the cortical tissue that, when stimulated, gave rise to movement of a particular body part, resulted in a widespread weakness and loss of use of that same body part.

There was, however, substantial recovery in the weeks that followed, recovery that was not lost on lesioning either the adjacent tissue in the same hemisphere or the equivalent cortical area of the opposite hemisphere.

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  5. Finally, they were able to trace the course of the degenerating corticofugal and corticospinal fibers. Bernhard SE , E. Bohm SE , and D. Taverner GB confirmed the existence of this projection physiologically This cartoon character has features drawn according to how much brain space they take up. Therefore, lips and fingers with their high number of nerve endings are larger than arms and legs Hugo Schulz DE noted that many chemicals can stimulate growth and respiration of yeast at low doses but are inhibitory at higher levels This concept of a generalized low-dose stimulation-high-dose inhibition was gradually supported by similar observations with other chemicals and eventually became known as the Arndt-Schulz law—Rudolf Arndt DE.

    Although Schulz ushered in the so-called modern concept of hormesis , i.

    See , Paracelsus, c. The two phases biphasic of a drug's action are dose-dependent. For instance, it is widely recognized that normal medical doses of atropine block the parasympathetic nerves, causing mucous membranes to dry up, while exceedingly small doses of atropine cause increased secretions of mucous membranes. William Williams Keen, Jr. US was the first American to remove an intracranial meningioma Arnaldo Cantani CZ-IT proposed the concept of the neural spread of rabies: in laboratory animals the transection of limb nerves following peripheral inoculation prevented the evolution of the disease Karl Schaffer HU produced evidence for the neural spread of rabies in humans Byrom Bramwell GB recognized a connection between pituitary tumors and body fat and polyuria One…is much more frequent than the others….

    This malformation consists of a true anatomopathologic type represented by the following tetralogy: 1 Stenosis of the pulmonary artery; 2 Interventricular communication; 3 Deviation of the origin of the aorta to the right; and 4 Hypertrophy, almost always concentric in type, of the right ventricle. Harald Hirschsprung DK described megacolon , a disease in which nerve ganglia are absent in the myenteric plexus of the rectosigmoid area of the large intestine, leading to improper development. The colon above the inactive area of the sigmoid dilates and there is chronic constipation, abdominal distension, and fecal impaction.

    Weijers NL developed the first accurate method of quantitating stool fat. They thereby proved that diets containing wheat, barley, and rye worsened fecal fat excretion and clinical symptoms in celiac patients When Swedish planes dropped bread in The Netherlands, his patients, who had improved on wheat-free diets, all relapsed Weijers NL , and J. Cyrus E.

    Rubin US , Lloyd L. Brandborg US , Arnold L. Flick US , Cherill M.